Nuclear Brief, December 1, 2005 (updated December 2,
Global Strike Command Becomes Operational
(Update August 8, 2006: Space and Global
Strike has been reorganized and is now called Global Strike Integration.
Space is a separate Component Command)
On November 18, 2005, U.S. Strategic Command's new Joint
Functional Component Command for Space and Global Strike (JFCC S&GS)
achieved Initial Operational Capability (IOC) at Offutt Air Force Base,
The new Space and Global Strike command is tasked with
implementing the new Global Strike mission assigned to STRATCOM in
January 2003. As such, Space and Global Strike command is responsible for implementing and executing the
administration's preemption policy. This includes nuclear preemptive
strikes under CONPLAN 8022 (Global Strike), if ordered to do so by the President.
The role of Space and Global Strike in nuclear
scenarios directed against North Korea appears to contradict at
least the spirit of the pledge made by the Bush Administration
on September 19, 2005 in a
Statement of the Fourth Round of the Six-Party Talks:
The United States "has no intention to
attack...[North Korea] with nuclear... weapons."
a press release received from STRATCOM, IOC was achieved "following
a rigorous test of integrated planning and operational execution
capabilities during Exercise Global Lightning." Not mentioned in
STRATCOM's press release is that Global Lightning was a nuclear strike
according to documents obtained by William M. Arkin practiced
nuclear war with North Korea.
During this exercise, according to
the STRATCOM press release, Space and Global Strike command
"demonstrated its mission of providing integrated space and global
strike capabilities to deter and dissuade aggressors and when directed,
defeat adversaries through decisive joint global effects in support of
North Korea is described in the
exercise scenario as the "Northeast Asian Country of Purple [that]
continues to develop nuclear and missile capabilities." The Global
exercise concept included the following:
- Provides Nuclear Combat Readiness, Proficiency
and Training Focus
- Facilitates USSTRATCOM / JFCC / TF Mission
- Provides a Bridging Exercise Between Nuclear and
Global Lightning exercised both OPLAN 8044 (previously
SIOP) and CONPLAN 8022 (Global Strike).
Space and Global Strike is scheduled to take part in U.S.
Pacific Command's Terminal Fury exercise on December 2-10, 2005.
According to STRATCOM documents, Space and Global
Strike command is tasked to provide "integrated space and global strike capabilities to deter and dissuade
aggressors and when directed, defeat adversaries through decisive joint
global effects in support of USSTRATCOM global missions." The new
command’s primary effort is to "integrate all USSTRATCOM global
capabilities supporting the combatant commanders around the world with
the full spectrum of military effects." The term "full spectrum"
includes nuclear forces.
Space and Global Strike command is the first of
four operational-level Joint Functional Component Commands (JFCC) that
are being set up to execute the new missions assigned to STRATCOM by the Unified Command
Plan Change 2 from January 2003. The mission tasks are:
- Global Strike
Planning and Operations
deliberate and adaptive planning for kinetic (nuclear and
conventional) and non-kinetic (e.g. information warfare and
rapid Course Of Action (COA) development capabilities
capability only when directed
- Joint Space
- Plan and
execute day—to-day military space operations
OPCON of DoD manned spaceflight support functions
missile warning and NORAD support
Integration and Synchronization
- Create a
framework to share information, integrate effects, and
synchronize ongoing operations among mission partners
Space and Global Strike command "optimizes operational-level planning, execution, and force management
for the USSTRATCOM mission of deterring attacks against the United
States," according to STRATCOM.
At the activation ceremony on August
9, 2005, STRATCOM commander General James Cartwright said that Space and
Global Strike command will help shape "the new kind of deterrence" that
has emerged after the end of the Cold War. This new deterrence requires
new capabilities, including kinetic (nuclear and conventional) and
non-kinetic (e.g. information warfare and space) capabilities,
Cartwright said. "[T]rying to bring all of those pieces together to what
will become deterrence, those things that will keep our adversaries at
whether they are nation states, like the former Soviet Union was, or
whether they are as simple as a terrorist, and trying to deter a
terrorist from coming to our soil, that is what Global Strike and Space
is at the heart of," General Cartwright said, "trying to bring that
new kind of deterrence to the fore, trying to find the ways to
keep this country safe."
The initial Space and Global Strike
commander, Air Force Lt. Gen. Bruce Carlsen, explained: "We’re involved
in ongoing operations, building OPORD’ers, and building capabilities to
attack and defend against our enemies."
His successor, Air Force Lt. Gen.
Kevin P. Chilton, the first commander of the operational Space and
Global Strike command, explained that integration of capabilities was
key to making the new deterrent credible. Through integration of
capabilities, by making "them an invincible whole…we will be able to
design a more integrated and powerful effect
across the spectrum of warfare."
According to STRATCOM, the formal
activation of Space and Global Strike command "marks an important step in the continued
strengthening of the nation’s efforts to defeat global terrorism,
prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and provide a
continued nuclear deterrent."
other Joint Functional Component Commands, Space and Global Strike
command headquarters is co-located at the USSTRATCOM headquarters at Offutt Air Force Base
in Nebraska. According to STRATCOM, Space and Global Strike command "integrates all elements of military power in
collaboration with all USSTRATCOM components, National Agencies, and
other combatant commands to support or execute space and global strike
operations." Space and Global Strike commander oversees the following military organizations around the
- The Joint Space Operations Center at
Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., to direct day-to-day planning and
execution of assigned military space forces.
- The Air Operations Center at Barksdale Air Force
Base, La., which supports Space and Global Strike command with critical planning
expertise to develop fully integrated global strike course-of-actions
across the spectrum of joint operations for both deliberate and time
sensitive planning tasks and assist in executing missions as directed.
The Cruise Missile Support Activities, in
Norfolk, Va., and Camp Smith, Hawaii, for Navy Tomahawk cruise missile
- The Department of Defense Manned Space
Flight Support Office, at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla., for coordination
of military support for manned United States space flight operations.
- In addition, the Joint Information Operations Center in
San Antonio, Texas, is available to deliver information operations
expertise for planning and execution.
Space and Global Strike was formally established on January
10, 2005. At the stand-up ceremony, the command included 270 personnel
but is projected to grow to more than 400 by the end of 2006.
Despite its young age, Space and Global Strike has already been involved in several exercises, spanning from regional
operations to strategic nuclear warfare:
- August 22-September 3, 2005: Ulchi Focus
Lens (UFL) 2005, a U.S. Pacific Command exercise conducted with US
Forces Korea (USFK) and the armed forces of the Republic of Korea (ROK).
The exercise was a US-ROK, simulation-driven, OPLAN oriented Command
Post Exercise (CPX) comprising of two events: Ulchi - a ROK national
mobilization exercise involving several hundred thousand ROK
citizens practicing wartime activation and traveling to mobilization
sites; and Focus Lens - a CFC warfighting CPX. Although there are a
significant number of personnel involved with the mobilization
portion, this exercise is separate and distinct from the CPX. UFL is
the Combined Forces Command (CFC) CDR's premier annual war fighting
exercise. During the exercise 3,000 U.S. personnel were moved to the
Korean Peninsula to augment the CFC/USFK staff. The executive agent
for UFL is USFK.
- August 4 (changed from September 19-25), 2005:
Operation Able Warrior involved Task Force Baghdad Soldiers attempting to defeat
terror cells operating west of the Baghdad International Airport in the
early-morning hours of Aug. 4. The objective of Able Warrior was to
disrupt car bombing cells and roadside bomb emplacers, and prevent them
from planning, preparing and carrying out terrorist attacks in the area.
In less than three hours, Soldiers from 2nd Battalion, 121st Infantry
Regiment, 48th Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division conducted a
series of simultaneous attacks and captured 41 suspected terrorists,
including three foreign fighters.
- November 1-10, 2005: STRATCOM’s Global Lightning
nuclear weapons exercise. According to
M. Arkin, the exercise was scheduled to rehearse
military operations during a trans-/post-attack nuclear environment,
including reconstitution, redirection and targeting of STRATCOM forces.
During this exercise,
according to STRATCOM, Space and Global Strike underwent "a
rigorous test of integrated planning and operational execution
capabilities" and "demonstrated its mission of providing integrated
space and global strike capabilities to deter and dissuade
aggressors and when directed, defeat adversaries through decisive
joint global effects in support of USSTRATCOM missions."
- December 2-10, 2005: Pacific Command's Terminal Fury high-level exercise
to be held at at US Pacific Command (PACOM) Headquarters located at Camp Smith, Hawaii.
IOC was initially planned for November 15, 2005. Full Operational Capability (FOC)
is tentatively scheduled for September
and Global Strike Component Command Concept of Operations
Report: Global Strike